HUMAN IMPACT MAP

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GLOBAL AIR QUALITY INDEX

AQI

Air Pollution Level

Info

0-50

Good

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT (for PM2.5)

None

51-100

Moderate

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT (for PM2.5)

Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion.

101-150

Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Members of sensitive groups may experience health effects. The general public is not likely to be affected.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT (for PM2.5)

Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion.

151-200

Unhealthy

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Everyone may begin to experience health effects; members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT (for PM2.5)

Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should avoid prolonged outdoor exertion; everyone else, especially children, should limit prolonged outdoor exertion

201-300

Very Unhealthy

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected.

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT (for PM2.5)

Active children and adults, and people with respiratory disease, such as asthma, should avoid all outdoor exertion; everyone else, especially children, should limit outdoor exertion.

300+

Hazardous

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Health alert: everyone may experience more serious health effects

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT (for PM2.5)

Everyone should avoid all outdoor exertion.

About The AQI

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Mean annual exposure to PM2.5 air pollution is increasing each year.

  • In 2015, mean annual exposure reached 42.274 micrograms per cubic meter.

  • The guideline set by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2.5 is that [mean annual] concentrations should not exceed 10 micrograms per cubic meter, representing the lower range over which adverse health effects have been observed.

CHART DATA DESCRIPTION

Population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution is defined as the average level of exposure of the [world's] population to concentrations of suspended particles measuring less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter, which are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing severe health damage. Exposure is calculated by weighting mean annual concentrations of PM2.5 by population in both urban and rural areas.

Source: Brauer, M. et al. 2016, for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

GLOBAL PM2.5 AIR POLLUTION

About This Chart

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Mean annual exposure to PM2.5 air pollution is increasing each year.

  • In 2015, mean annual exposure reached 42.274 micrograms per cubic meter.

  • The guideline set by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2.5 is that [mean annual] concentrations should not exceed 10 micrograms per cubic meter, representing the lower range over which adverse health effects have been observed.

CHART DATA DESCRIPTION

Population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution is defined as the average level of exposure of the [world's] population to concentrations of suspended particles measuring less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter, which are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing severe health damage. Exposure is calculated by weighting mean annual concentrations of PM2.5 by population in both urban and rural areas.

Source: Brauer, M. et al. 2016, for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

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The Human Impact Map

Today, we see a natural world in peril. The actions of humanity have jeopardized the integrity of wild places and threaten the stability of the ecosystem services that all life depend upon. We must act to reverse the damage that we have done.

The Human Impact Map depicts a snapshot of the scale and severity of the human impact upon our planet. The Map addresses global issues related to climate change, pollution, agriculture, and wildlife. In depicting the breadth of these issues, it is clear to see that all nations and all people are affected.

Climate Change

The security of life on Earth is dependent upon the predictability of the forces of nature. Climate change undermines this predictability. Millions of people are already being affected by the increase in average global temperature. Changing precipitation patterns, increasing drought severity, sea level rise, and increasing storm intensity threaten the security of global food production, water availability, and the general satefy of life on Earth.

LEARN MORE

Pollution

On the land, in the air, and in the water, pollution is a growing threat to the well-being of all life. Globally, soil quality is being degraded by industrial waste and agricultural chemicals. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 91% of the world's population is living "in places where air quality exceeds WHO guideline limits."1 Rivers, lakes, acquifers, and oceans are all becoming increasingly polluted. Scientists estimate that ~8 million metric tons of plastic enter our oceans every year.2

LEARN MORE

Agriculture

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, "Climate change will affect every aspect of food production." The increasing unpredictability of weather events introduces enormous uncertainty in the future of food security. Fluctuating temperature and precipitation patterns, a tendency towards frost-free seasons, increasing drought severity, and changes in the pattern and intensity of monsoons, present enormous challenges to farmers around the globe.

LEARN MORE

Wildlife

Have we entered into the Anthropocene? Many environmental experts argue that we have entered into a new epoch, one characterized by the radical transformation of Earth's structure and systems by the activities of humanity. While the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) asserts that we are still in the Holocene, the breadth and depth of the human impact is challenging this notion. The current mass extinction of animals and plants is a key driver in this debate.

LEARN MORE

Credits

The data in the Human Impact Map has been obtained from various sources. Whenever content has been acquired from outside parties, citations, references, and credits are provided. To insure the accuracy of the data contained herein, data has been acquired only from institutions, agencies, or organizations that are leaders in their respective fields. Wildlife data has been obtained primarily from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resource (IUCN), generally considered to be the leading authority on the status of the natural world. Wildlife data has also been obtained from National Geographic, and non-government-organization, such as The Nature Conservancy and the World Wildlife Fund. Climate and agricultural data has been obtained primarily from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Union of Concerned Scientists, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Pollution data has been otained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO), and articles from major international news papers, including the BBC, The Guardian, Time Magazine, and others.

Author

The Human Impact Map is a non-for-profit endeavor developed by Chris Muhl using the OpenLayers web mapping library.

Contact

For questions about the Human Impact Map, collaboration, or matters related to content provided in the map, please reach out to me via my contact page, or directly at chris@chrismuhlart.com.


References:

1 WHO 2019. Air Pollution. https://www.who.int/airpollution/ambient/en/. Accessed on 21 October 2019.

2 NOAA 2019. A Guide to Plastic in the Ocean. https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/marinedebris/plastics-in-the-ocean.html. Accessed on 21 October 2019.

Image Credits:

Image 1 (Cimate Change). Stuart Rankin, CC BY-NC 2.0, Resized.

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Continued Learning

This web map addresses environmental issues that have arisen in response to human activity upon the Earth. This continued learning page provides basic learning about critical concepts and suggestions for how we can each reduce our individual impact.

Understanding Climate Change

To comprehend climate change, we must first understand the properties of the Earth's atmosphere and the greenhouse effect.

The Atmosphere Makes Life on Earth Possible

The average, global temperature on the surface of the Earth is ~59.9° F (~15.5° C).1 This temperature is maintained by the insulating capacity of Earth's atmosphere. Without an atmosphere, extreme temperatures and solar radiation would make life on Earth impossible. For example, "the lack of atmosphere [on the moon] produces temperature extremes... that range from -250° F in the dark to +250° F in the light."2 Additionally, the lack of atmosphere and the high solar radiation environment create conditions intolerable for life, which explains why there are no living organisms on the Moon.2

The Greenhouse

What gives the Earth's atmosphere its insolating property?

The atmosphere is a gaseous blanket over the planet. Its heat retention property is created by certain gases referred to as "greenhouse gases." The primary greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. As shortwave radiation (visible light) from the sun passes through our atmosphere, a number of interactions occur. "Some of this incoming radiation is reflected off clouds, some is absorbed by the atmosphere, and some passes through to the Earth's surface. Larger aerosol particles in the atmosphere interact with and absorb some of the radiation, causing the atmosphere to warm. The shortwave radiation that passes [all the way] through Earth's atmosphere is either reflected off snow, ice, or other surfaces, or is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Heat resulting from the absorption of incoming shortwave radiation is emitted as longwave radiation."3

The Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb most of the Earth's emitted longwave radiation, which results in heating of the lower atmosphere. In turn, the warmed atmosphere emits longwave radiation back toward the surface of the Earth, keeping the planet warm.3 This natural process provides surface temperatures suitable for life. However, as atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases increase by way of human activity, more of the Earth's emitted longwave radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere (less escapes into space), resulting in increased warming of both the atmosphere and the surface of the planet. This is referred to as "global warming" and it is the source of the current climate change crisis.3

A simplified animation of the greenhouse effect. Image Credit: NASA-JPL/Caltech

Why do we call it the greenhouse effect?

The Earth's greenhouse gases act to insulate the planet in the same way that glass insulates a greenhouse. On Earth, shortwave radiation enters the system, is emitted as longwave radiation, and is contained within the system because of the insulating properties of greenhouse gases. In a greenhouse, shortwave radiation enters the system, is emitted as longwave radiation, and is contained within the system because of the insulating properties of glass. Increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases is equivalent to adding a second or third pane to the windows of a greenhouse.


References:

1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2019. June 2019 was hottest on record for the globe. https://www.noaa.gov/news/june-2019-was-hottest-on-record-for-globe. Accessed on 27 November 2019.

1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2019. Moon. https://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/rocket/moon.html. Accessed on 27 November 2019.

1 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2019. Tour of the Electromagnetic Spectrum, The Earth's Radiation Budget. https://science.nasa.gov/ems/13_radiationbudget. Accessed on 27 November 2019.

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How To Use This Map

The Human Impact Map is intended to be a visually engaging experience wherein the user can quickly obtain a snapshot of the scope and severity of many of the most critical issues on the planet. Additional textual information is provided for users who wish to dive deeper into topics of interest to them.

Main Map Controls

HOME

Return to the home extent

MENU

Toggle the header menu

DATA

Toggle the data panel

ABOUT

Learn about the map

HELP

Access map use tips

Local & Regional Issues

Crisis Markers

Crisis markers mark the general location of a critical environmental issue. In some cases, the issues may be regional or continental in scale, such as acquifer depletion and declining species populations. In these situations, markers have been placed centrally within the area of the issue.

CLIMATE

Explore critical climate change issues

POLLUTION

Explore critical pollution issues

AGRICULTURE

Explore critical agricultural issues

WILDLIFE

Explore critical wildlife issues

Crisis Popups

Popup Elements

Please note that the crisis popups are currently under development.

The popups are composed of three sections. The top section contains the image slider and captions. The middle section contains the key highlights. The lower section contains more indepth information about the crisis.

Toggle Popup Display

The Change Popup Display button located in the top right corner of the map toggles the background color and the font color within the popups from white font on a dark background to black font on a light background.

Key Highlights Buttons

POPULATION

Current estimated total population

THREATS

Reason for population decline

GET INVOLVED

How to get involved

Global Trends

The Global Trends section is currently under development. Toggle the data layers to reveal spatial visualizations of current global issues.

Map Base Layers

You can toggle between the custom base layer and the Bing Aerial (satellite) base layer. Certain issues, such as the extent of deforestation in Indonesia and the Amazon can be viewed using the Bing Aerial base layer. As an example, evaulating the magnitude of deforestation on the island of Sumatra reveals why the Sumatran orangutan, tiger, rhino, and elephant are all critically endangered.

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WILDLIFE

The Sixth Mass Extinction

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) more than 28,000 species are at risk of extinction.1

The IUCN has assessed 105,732 species, of which 27% may go extinct in the coming years. 2 Increasingly, researchers agree that we have entered into the sixth mass extinction event and humans are the dominant cause. There are only five known mass extinctions in the history of life on earth. Some experts believe that the current extinction rate could be more than 100 times higher than previous events.3 Many of the planet's most cherished animals are critically endangered (CR). Key enxtinction drivers are poaching, habitat loss, invasive species, pollution, climate change, and over-exploitation of resources.

The Loss of Both Fauna and Flora

Extinction threatens an alarming percentage of the species on earth. As animals and plants disappear, entire ecosystems can be disrupted, undermining the integrity of the ecosystem services that they provde.

AMPHIBIANS

40%

MAMMALS

25%

CONIFERS

34%

BIRDS

14%

SHARKS & RAYS

30%

REEF CORALS

33%

SELECTED CRUSTACEANS

27%

IUCN Ratings

The Human Impact Map provides a snapshot of species categorized by the IUCN as Vulnerable, Endangered, and Critically Endangered.

NOT EVALUATED
NE
DATA DEFICIENT
DD
LEAST CONCERN
LC
NEAR THREATENED
NT
VULNERABLE
VU
ENDANGERED
EN
CRTICALLY ENDANGERED
CR
EXTINCT IN THE WILD
EW
EXTINCT
EX

References:

1 IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org/. Accessed on 19 October 2019.

2 IUCN 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org/. Accessed on 19 October 2019.

3 National Geographic 2019. Will Humans Survive the Sixth Great Extinction?. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/06/150623-sixth-extinction-kolbert-animals-conservation-science-world/. Accessed on 19 October 2019.

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AGRICULTURE

Decreasing Food Security

"The global demand for food and non-food agricultural products continues to grow, reflecting dietary changes, driven by population growth, a rise in income and increased urbanization."1

"The unequal distribution of income and access to assets, persistent extreme poverty and the lack of earning opportunities for hundreds of millions of people cause food insecurity to persist. While much progress was made over the past years to reduce hunger, more than 821 million people are still chronically hungry, and the evidence points to persistent undernourishment in the future. More than two billion people suffer from various forms of micronutrient deficiencies."2 Adding to this problem, "what can be produced and whether growing and changing food requirements can be met will depend on the availability and productivity of resources, and notably of land and water. These resources are already under pressure, and although technical progress has raised productivity, evidence suggests that productivity growth, or at least growth in crop yields, is slowing."3 Furthermore, "climate change manifesting itself in the form of extreme weather events already negatively affects yields in crop production, livestock rearing and fisheries, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). This adds pressure on natural resources and shifts the distribution of what can be produced and where."4

Overview of the Issues

"Global food and agricultural systems are currently facing the following major challenges, which will persist for the next decades:

  • providing sufficient food and other agricultural products to meet growing and changing global demands;
  • eradicating hunger and food insecurity;
  • preserving and enhancing the productivity and sustainable use of available natural resources;
  • adapting to the impacts of climate change;
  • contributing to climate change mitigation."5

"The future of the global food and agricultural system will be shaped by how it meets these five challenges, through efforts to make room for a sustainable future rather than submitting to trade-offs for short-term benefits."6. The above challenges can be grouped into four main areas of concern.7

Population and Economic Growth

"Population increases over the last century led to a substantial rise in food demand. The United Nations projects that the world’s population will be 9.7 billion by 2050, 10.8 billion by 2080, and 11.2 billion by 2100."8 "While these projections actually suggest a slowdown in the overall global population growth, significant and persistent increases are expected in Africa and South Asia."9 As such, "the demand for food is expected to significantly increase, particularly in Africa and South Asia."10

Changes in Food Demand & Preferences

"Agricultural demand is also affected by the expanding global economy and increases in per capita annual income, which raise and change food demand. Globally, the income of the average world citizen nowadays is almost USD 11,000/year, which is twice the 1970 level of just over USD 5,500."11 Additionally, Income growth, urbanization, relative price changes, technological change, value chain developments and globalization have all contributed to an increase in per capita calorie intake, as well as to a shift in the composition of diets. Rapid income growth in emerging countries has given rise to a global middle class, with food consumption preferences characterized by a greater demand for meat, fish and dairy products and other more resource-intensive items.12

Poverty & Inequality

"Persistent poverty, inequality and unemployment constrain food access and hamper the achievement of food security and nutrition goals."13 Despite evident progress in reducing both the absolute number and the global percentage of undernourished people in recent decades (i.e. the prevalence of undernourishment – PoU), the objectives that the international community has set have so far barely been achieved, if at all.14 "As of 2017, it is estimated that more than 820 million people, approximately one out of every nine people in the word, are still undernourished"15 "Worse still, after a prolonged decline, both the absolute number of undernourished and the PoU seem to be on the rise again, signalling a possible reversal of trends in global hunger."16

Challenges for Rural People

"Reducing poverty and food insecurity and improving nutrition outcomes cannot be achieved without increased employment and income."17 However, "employment and earning opportunities are particularly lacking in agricultural and rural areas, where extreme poverty strikes most."18 "Employment prospects in rural areas and their impact on the welfare of rural people should also be seen in the light of transformations occurring in the food system. Food value chains are increasingly characterized by vertical coordination – or integration – of input supply, primary production, processing and distribution, automation of large-scale processing, and higher capital and knowledge intensities."19 At the same time, "concentration in agricultural biotechnology is giving the largest corporations unprecedented power vis-à-vis growers and other stakeholders. In recent years, [mergers] and further concentration in the seed industry [have] occurred, with the ten largest companies covering more than 65% of the seed market."20 "In all regions future access to sufficient and adequate food for poor people currently living in rural areas will depend on the impact of such transformations on poor people’s earning and employment opportunities, within and outside the agricultural sectors."21

Contraints to Growth of Agricultural Production

"Agricultural production more than tripled between 1960 and 2015, owing in part to productivity-enhancing Green Revolution technologies and a significant expansion in the use of land, water and other natural resources for agricultural purposes. The same period witnessed remarkable increases in the industrialization and globalization of food and agriculture. Even though agriculture at the global level has become more efficient, expanding food production and economic growth have often come at the cost of the natural environment. In fact, almost half of the forests that once covered the planet are now gone, groundwater sources are increasingly under pressure, biodiversity has been severely eroded and bodies of water and groundwater have been polluted with nitrates, herbicides and pesticides."22

Degraded Lands, Stressed Water Resources

"Approximately one-third of the world’s farmland is moderately to highly degraded.23 Globally, there are few opportunities left for further expanding agricultural areas."24 "In many low-rainfall areas of the Near East, North Africa and Central Asia, as well as in India and China, farmers use much of the available water resources, resulting in the serious depletion of rivers and aquifers."25 "Due to water scarcity, the rate of expansion of land under irrigation is slowing substantially in these areas."26 "Given these limitations in land and water resources, it is likely that the additional amounts of food needed in the coming decades will have to be produced mainly through yield increases, rather than through major expansions in cultivated areas."27 However, "in the last 20 years, yield growth has slowed, with recent studies even suggesting that in selected regions yields are already close to their maximum potential."28 "In addition, despite increased efficiency in recent decades in the animal production sector, there has been an alarming increase in the number of outbreaks of transboundary pests and animal diseases."29 "Decreasing growth rates of global crop yields, land degradation and water overuse, as well as increasing levels of crop and animal diseases and growing antimicrobial resistance, all raise concerns and call for more investment in agriculture."30 Consequently, "the currently limited level of investment in agriculture in low- and middle-income countries is a worrying sign."31

Threats of Climate Change

"Climate change will critically determine the future state of natural resources, as well as the future conditions of and constraints to agricultural production, thereby affecting food availability and the stability of food supplies. In addition, as climate change affects countries and sectors differently, it will change the distribution of income, natural resource endowments and earning opportunities."32 "One direct impact of climate change on agriculture is that it jeopardizes crop [yields]. A meta-analysis of 1,090 studies (primarily on wheat, maize, rice and soybeans) under different climate change conditions indicates that climate change may significantly reduce yields in the long run."33 "Higher temperatures and less reliable supplies of fresh water are also expected to create severe hardships for small-scale livestock producers, particularly in arid and semi-arid grassland and rangeland ecosystems at low latitudes. Furthermore, higher temperatures and water scarcity will have a direct impact on animal health and reduce the quality and supply of feed and fodder."34 "Climate change is already affecting the aquatic environment, for example through changes in sea-surface temperature, ocean circulation, waves and storm systems, salinity content, oxygen concentration and acidification. This will all have an impact on global – and particularly regional – fisheries."35

Green House Gas (GHG) Admissions

"The food and agricultural sectors will not only be impacted by climate change, they are also among its main contributors. Although GHG emissions resulting from agriculture, forestry and other land-use (AFOLU) have almost stabilized over the past 25 years, the agricultural sector still produces close to 20% of total global GHG emissions."36 "Most of agriculture’s methane emissions are produced by rice cultivation and enteric fermentation during the digestive processes of ruminant animals. The nitrous oxide emissions originate mainly from the application of nitrogen-based fertilizers for food and feed production and animal manure management, while carbon dioxide is released from the clearing of forests for cropland and pasture. The wide range of emission factors across countries and regions suggests that there is potential to lower GHG from food and agricultural sectors."37 "However, evolving food systems increasingly lead to intensive production and longer food supply chains, which can be associated with higher GHG emissions from both production inputs and activities beyond the farm."38


References:

1 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 3 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

2 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 4 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

3 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 4 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

4 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 4 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

5 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 7 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

6 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 7 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

7 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 7 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

8 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 8 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

9 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 8 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

10 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 8 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

11 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 10 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

12 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 12 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

13 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 7 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

14 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 14 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

15 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 14 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

16 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 14 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

17 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 19 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

18 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 19 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

19 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 22 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

20 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 23 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

21 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 23 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

22 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 24 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

23 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 26 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

24 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 26 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

25 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 26 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

26 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 26 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

27 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 27 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

28 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 27 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

29 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 28 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

30 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 30 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

31 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 30 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

32 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 31 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

33 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 31 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

34 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 32 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

35 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 31 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

36 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 32 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

37 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 33 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

38 FAO. 2018. The future of food and agriculture – Alternative pathways to 2050. Rome. 33 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

Image Credits:

Image 1 (Overview). Pexels

Image 2 (Urban Development). Pixabay

Image 3 (Rural Challenges). Unsplash

Image 4 (Stressed Water Resources). Pexels

Image 5 (Climate Threats). CIAT CC BY-SA 2.0, Resized.

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POLLUTION

Poisoning Our World

"Pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and premature death in the world today."1

"Diseases caused by pollution were responsible for an estimated 9 million premature deaths in 2015—16% of all deaths worldwide— three times more deaths than from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined and 15 times more than from all wars and other forms of violence. In the most severely affected countries, pollution-related disease is responsible for more than one death in four."2

Overview of Impact

"Pollution is one of the great existential challenges of the Anthropocene epoch. Like climate change, biodiversity loss, ocean acidification, desertification, and depletion of the world’s fresh water supply, pollution endangers the stability of the Earth’s support systems and threatens the continuing survival of human societies."3

Plastic Pollution

"Researchers estimate that 90% of seabirds are eating plastic."4 "Plastic ingestion by seabirds is expected to reach 99% of all species by 2050."5

The Oceanfill

"Half of all plastics ever manufactured have been made in the last 15 years. Production increased exponentially, from 2.3 million tons in 1950 to 448 million tons by 2015. Production is expected to double by 2050. Every year, about 8 million tons of plastic waste escapes into the oceans from coastal nations. That’s the equivalent of setting five garbage bags full of trash on every foot of coastline around the world. Plastics often contain additives making them stronger, more flexible, and durable. But many of these additives can extend the life of products if they become litter, with some estimates ranging to at least 400 years to break down."6

Air Pollution

"Air pollution levels remain dangerously high in many parts of the world. New data from WHO shows that 9 out of 10 people breathe air containing high levels of pollutants."7

A Leading Cause of Death

"WHO estimates that around 7 million people die every year from exposure to fine particles in polluted air that penetrate deep into the lungs and cardiovascular system, causing diseases including stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and respiratory infections, including pneumonia."8 Air pollution causes "an estimated one-quarter (24%) of all adult deaths from heart disease, 25% from stroke, 43% from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 29% from lung cancer."9

Water Pollution

"The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) "estimates that, in 2015, 1.8 million deaths were attributable to water pollution, including unsafe water sources, unsafe sanitation, and inadequate handwashing."10

Environmental Impact

"The principal diseases linked to water pollution are acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases, most importantly diarrhoeal diseases (70% of deaths attributed to water pollution), typhoid fever (8%), paratyphoid fever (20%), and lower respiratory tract infections (2%)."11 "These diseases affect more than 1 billion people, predominantly in low-income and middle-income countries."12 "Water pollution also has effects on planetary health that extend beyond its effects on human health. Pollution of rivers, lakes, and the oceans from agriculture, manufacturing, and the extractive industries can have catastrophic effects on freshwater and marine ecosystems that result in the collapse of fisheries and the diminished livelihood of indigenous populations and others who rely upon fish as a major food source."13

Soil Contamination

"Polluted soil at contaminated sites threatens the environment and human health in communities worldwide. Most contaminated sites are relatively small, but the aggregate number of people affected globally by the many hundreds of thousands of extant sites is large. Polluted sites are most commonly contaminated by informal, small-scale, unregulated local industry or artisanal activity. Sites can be contaminated by current industrial and mining activity, or they can be abandoned, legacy sites that were contaminated by previous operations."14

Contaminated Industrial Sites

"The contaminants at polluted sites that pose the greatest threats to health are environmentally persistent substances such as metals, persistent organic pollutants (including persistent pesticides), and radionuclides. The metals most commonly encountered at polluted sites include mercury, lead, chromium, and cadmium. Human exposure to contaminated soil at toxic sites can result from ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption. Ingestion is the most common pathway. Children are at greatest risk of exposure because they play close to the ground and because of their common oral exploratory behaviour."15

Chemical Pollution

"Chemical pollution is a great and growing global problem. The effects of chemical pollution on human health are poorly defined and its contribution to the global burden of disease is almost certainly underestimated."16

Untested and Lethal Chemicals

"More than 140,000 new chemicals and pesticides have been synthesised since 1950. Of these materials, the 5,000 that are produced in greatest volume have become widely dispersed in the environment and are responsible for nearly universal human exposure. Fewer than half of these high-production volume chemicals have undergone any testing for safety or toxicity, and rigorous pre-market evaluation of new chemicals has become mandatory in only the past decade and in only a few high-income countries. The result is that chemicals and pesticides whose effects on human health and the environment were never examined have repeatedly been responsible for episodes of disease, death, and environmental degradation."17

Radioactive Pollution

"The radioactive pollution is defined as the physical pollution of living organisms and their environment as a result of release of radioactive substances into the environment during nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapon production and decommissioning, mining of radioactive ores, handling and disposal of radioactive waste, and accidents at nuclear power plants."18

The Nuclear Dilemma

"Nuclear power currently provides about 11% of the world’s electricity, with 12 countries using nuclear power for at least 30% of their national electricity generation. As of today, there are 449 operational nuclear power reactors in 30 countries, with 56 others under construction in 15 countries."19 In the United States, nuclear energy production began in 1951. Since then, US nuclear reactors used to generate electricty have produced roughly 80,000 metric tonnes of spent fuel, "stored at more than 75 sites in 25 states."20 Nuclear waste has also been created by the US nuclear weapons complex. This highly reactive waste is stored in large metal tanks "located at the Savannah River site in South Carolina, the Hanford site in Washington State, at Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho, and Nuclear Fuel Services site at West Valley in New York State."21 To date, there is still no agreed upon plan for the safe, long-term storage of nuclear waste.

Thermal Pollution

"Human alterations to natural temperature regimes of freshwater habitats cause thermal pollution. Thermal pollution is any deviation from the natural temperature in a habitat and can range from elevated temperatures associated with industrial cooling activities to discharges of cold water into streams below large impoundments. Given that the metabolic rates of ectotherms are directly related to temperature and that the vast majority of freshwater organisms are ectothermic, thermal pollution can strongly affect freshwater communities. Alterations to normal water temperature regimes have myriad biological effects, including interfering with temperature cues for spawning fishes, facilitating establishment of exotic species, and altering growth and development of aquatic organisms. Further, aquatic organisms evolved in relatively thermally buffered environments, and thus they are generally more sensitive to temperature fluctuations than their terrestrial counterparts."22

Aquatic Die-Off

"Power plants and industrial factories are the major point source contributors to thermal pollution. In this case, cool water is withdrawn from streams, used for cooling of generators and other machinery, and then returned to the stream at elevated temperatures. Rapid changes in temperature associated with power plant operations can kill fishes by thermal shock. Mitigating the thermal effects of power plant effluent obviously has a significant financial cost. Temperature regimes of small lakes or near-shore portions of lakes are also altered by human activities including effluents from municipal facilities and industry."23

Noise Pollution

"Noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. Studies have shown that there are direct links between noise and health. Problems related to noise include stress related illnesses, high blood pressure, speech interference, hearing loss, sleep disruption, and lost productivity."24

Increasing Disturbance

There are many sources of noise pollution, including road traffic, air traffic, noise from railroads, construction noise, noise in industry, noise in buidlings, and noise from consumer products.25 "EPA research indicates that noise levels in communities is directly related to the population density. Because the noise in urban areas generally exceeds that of suburban and rural areas, it is not unreasonable to assume that noise in the U.S. is increasing at least in proportion to the increase in urbanization and more rapidly than the growth of the general population. In addition, noise sources appear to be multiplying at a faster pace than the population."26

Light Pollution

"Two-thirds of the U.S. population and more than one-half of the European population have already lost the ability to see the Milky Way with the naked eye. Moreover, 63% of the world population and 99% of the population of the European Union and the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) live in areas where the night sky is brighter than the threshold for light-polluted status set by the International Astronomical Union—that is, the artificial sky brightness is greater than 10% of the natural sky brightness above 45° of elevation."27

Disrupting the Natural Cycle

In humans, light pollution has been linked to disruption of the circadian clock, sleep disorders, decreasing melotonin production, and brest and colorectal cancers.28 "Light pollution has [also] been shown to affect both flora and fauna."29 Prolonged exposure to artificial light prevents many trees from adjusting to seasonal variations, which has implications for the wildlife that depend on trees.""30 Research on insects, turtles, birds, fish, reptiles, and other wildlife species shows that light pollution can alter behaviors, foraging areas, and breeding cycles, and not just in urban centers but in rural areas as well."31 Bright electric lights can also disrupt the behavior of birds. About 200 species of birds fly their migration patterns at night over North America, and routinely are confused during passage by brightly lit buildings, communication towers, and other structures.32.

Visual Pollution

"Visual pollution is defined as making some negative changes in the natural environment and, in this way, turning the visual areas of healthy people into something that disturbs them "18 Visual pollution includes open dump sites and landfills, curbside waste, beach trash and litter, poorly maintained or abandon buildings, graffiti, billboards, street banners, advertisement signs, electronic signs and public LED screens, telephone and utility poles, telephone, electricity and TV cables and wires, abandoned vehicles, eutrophic lakes, oil spills, and smog/ haze and smoke.33

The Effect of Eyesores

"People are constantly interacting with their environments, [and there] is a continuous balance between human beings and their [surroundings]. The deterioration of this balance has such negative effects on people as distraction, eye fatigue, reluctance, unproductivity, decrease in opinion diversity, decrease in stimulation, adaptation difficulties, nervousness, behavioral disorder, pessimism, nausea, psychic trauma, decrease in joy of living, increase in psychosomatic illnesses, and vertigo."34

Litter

"Trash can travel throughout the world's rivers and oceans, accumulating on beaches and within gyres. This debris harms physical habitats, transports chemical pollutants, threatens aquatic life, and interferes with human uses of river, marine and coastal environments."35 "Of all trash, plastic trash has the greatest potential to harm the environment, wildlife and humans. It can be found floating at the surface, suspended in the water column, or on the bottom of almost all water bodies. It is transported by rivers to the ocean, where it moves with the currents, and is often eaten by birds and fish, concentrating toxic chemicals in their tissues, and filling their stomachs, causing them to starve. Plastic aquatic debris is much more than a mere aesthetic problem."36

A Major Safety Hazard

"In addition to degrading the habitats and ecosystem services that humans use, plastic aquatic debris can directly interfere with navigation, impede commercial and recreational fishing, threaten health and safety, and reduce tourism."37 Chemical impacts associated with plastic aquatic trash include the accumulation and transport of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBTs) contaminants, such as PCBs and pesticides. Aquatic plastic debris has been found to accumulate contaminants at concentrations that are orders of magnitude (thousands to millions of times) greater than the surrounding environment. Based on a number of studies, including those conducted by EPA, plastics have the potential to adsorb chemicals of concern from the environment, and serve as a potential global transport mechanism for contaminants of concern into the food chain and potentially to humans who eat seafoods.38


References:

1 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 462.

2 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 462.

3 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 465.

4 Wilcox, C., Van Sebille, E., and Hardesty, B. D. (2015) Threat of Plastic Pollution to Seabirds is Global, Pervasive, and Increasing. PNAS, p. 1.

5 Wilcox, C., Van Sebille, E., and Hardesty, B. D. (2015) Threat of Plastic Pollution to Seabirds is Global, Pervasive, and Increasing. PNAS, p. 1.

6 National Geographic 2019. The World's Plastic Pollution Crisis Explained. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/habitats/plastic-pollution/. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

7 World Health Orgnaization 2018. 9 out of 10 people worldwide breathe polluted air, but more countries are taking action. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/02-05-2018-9-out-of-10-people-worldwide-breathe-polluted-air-but-more-countries-are-taking-action. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

8 World Health Orgnaization 2018. 9 out of 10 people worldwide breathe polluted air, but more countries are taking action. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/02-05-2018-9-out-of-10-people-worldwide-breathe-polluted-air-but-more-countries-are-taking-action. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

9 World Health Orgnaization 2018. 9 out of 10 people worldwide breathe polluted air, but more countries are taking action. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/02-05-2018-9-out-of-10-people-worldwide-breathe-polluted-air-but-more-countries-are-taking-action. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

10 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 476.

11 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 476.

12 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 476.

13 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 476.

14 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 478.

15 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 478.

16 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 462.

17 Landrigan, P. J., et al. (2018) The Lancet Commission on pollution and health. The Lancet, Volume(391), pp. 462.

18 ResearchGate. Radioactive Pollution https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316076299_Radioactive_Pollution. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

19 International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA Releases Country Nuclear Power Profiles 2017 https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/iaea-releases-country-nuclear-power-profiles-2017. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

20 Standford University. The steep costs of nuclear waste in the U.S. https://earth.stanford.edu/news/steep-costs-nuclear-waste-us#gs.bwr8o3. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

21 Standford University. The steep costs of nuclear waste in the U.S. https://earth.stanford.edu/news/steep-costs-nuclear-waste-us#gs.bwr8o3. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

22 Vallero, D. A. (2019) Thermal Pollution. Waste, A Handbook for Management, 2nd Edition, pp. 381-404.

23 Vallero, D. A. (2019) Thermal Pollution. Waste, A Handbook for Management, 2nd Edition, pp. 381-404.

24 EPA (2019). Clean Air Act Title IV - Noise Pollution. https://www.epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/clean-air-act-title-iv-noise-pollution. Accessed on 25 October 2019.

25 Suter, A.H. (1991) Noise and Its Effects. EPA, Administrative Conference of the United States, pp. 1-47.

26 Suter, A.H. (1991) Noise and Its Effects. EPA, Administrative Conference of the United States, pp. 1-47.

27 PMC, Environmental Health Perspectives. (2009) Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution National Institute of Environmental Health Science. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627884/. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

28 PMC, Environmental Health Perspectives. (2009) Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution National Institute of Environmental Health Science. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627884/. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

29 PMC, Environmental Health Perspectives. (2009) Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution National Institute of Environmental Health Science. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627884/. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

30 PMC, Environmental Health Perspectives. (2009) Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution National Institute of Environmental Health Science. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627884/. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

31 PMC, Environmental Health Perspectives. (2009) Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution National Institute of Environmental Health Science. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627884/. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

32 PMC, Environmental Health Perspectives. (2009) Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution National Institute of Environmental Health Science. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627884/. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

33 Sivaramanan, S. (2016) Visual Pollution Central Environmental Authority (Sri Lanka) Isbn: 978-1-365-50515-7.

34 Yilmaz, D. and Sagsoz, A. (2011) In the Context of Visual Pollution: Effects to Trabzon City Center Silhoutte Asian Social Science, Vol. 7, No. 5 p. 99.

35 EPA (2019) Impacts of Mismanaged Trash https://www.epa.gov/trash-free-waters/impacts-mismanaged-trash. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

36 EPA (2019) Impacts of Mismanaged Trash https://www.epa.gov/trash-free-waters/impacts-mismanaged-trash. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

37 EPA (2019) Impacts of Mismanaged Trash https://www.epa.gov/trash-free-waters/impacts-mismanaged-trash. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

38 EPA (2019) Impacts of Mismanaged Trash https://www.epa.gov/trash-free-waters/impacts-mismanaged-trash. Accessed on 26 October 2019.

Image Credits:

Image 1 (Pollution). Texas National Guard

Image 2 (Plastic Pollution). Muntaka Chasant CC BY-SA 4.0, Resized.

Image 3 (Air Pollution). Michael Davis-Burchat CC BY-ND 2.0, Resized.

Image 4 (Water Pollution). Carol Stoker, NASA, Public Domain

Image 5 (Soil Pollution). JungleNews CC BY-SA 4.0, Resized.

Image 6 (Chemical Pollution). Pixabay

Image 7 (Radiation Pollution). Pixabay

Image 8 (Thermal Pollution). Jihara19 CC BY-SA 3.0, Resized.

Image 8 (Noise Pollution). Public Domain

Image 9 (Light Pollution). Pexels

Image 10 (Visual Pollution). Jean-Christophe Benoist, CC BY 3.0, Resized.

Image 10 (Litter). Marcin Białek, CC BY-SA 4.0, Resized.

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CLIMATE CHANGE

A World of Uncertainty

"Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. "1

"Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased since the pre-industrial era, driven largely by economic and population growth, and are now higher than ever. This has led to atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide that are unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years. Their effects, together with those of other anthropogenic drivers, have been detected throughout the climate system and are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."2

Current State of Events

CARBON DIOXIDE

412

parts per million

Carbon dioxide levels in the air are at their highest in 650,000 years.

GLOBAL TEMPERATURE

1.9

°F since 1880

Eighteen of the 19 warmest years on record have occured since 2001.

ARCTIC ICE MINIMUM

12.8

percent per decade

In 2012, arctic summer sea ice shrank to the lowest on record.

ICE SHEETS

413

Gigatonnes per year

Satellite data show that Earth's p olar ice sheets are losing mass.

SEA LEVEL

3.3

millimeters per year

Global average sea level has risen nearly 7" (178 mm) over the past 100 years.

Data Credit: NASA, Global climate change

Overview of Impact

"In urban areas climate change is projected to increase risks for people, assets, economies and ecosystems, including risks from heat stress, storms and extreme precipitation, inland and coastal flooding, landslides, air pollution, drought, water scarcity, sea level rise and storm surges. These risks are amplified for those lacking essential infrastructure and services or living in exposed areas."3

Rural areas are expected to experience major impacts on water availability and supply, food security, infrastructure and agricultural incomes, including shifts in the production areas of food and non-food crops around the world (high confidence)."4

Temperature Rise

"Scientists have high confidence that global temperatures will continue to rise for decades to come, largely due to greenhouse gases produced by human activities. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which includes more than 1,300 scientists from the United States and other countries, forecasts a temperature rise of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century."5

Warming Oceans

"Ocean warming dominates the increase in energy stored in the climate system, accounting for more than 90% of the energy accumulated between 1971 and 2010, with only about 1% stored in the atmosphere. On a global scale, the ocean warming is largest near the surface, and the upper 75 m [246 ft] warmed by 0.11 [0.09 to 0.13] °C per decade over the period 1971 to 2010."6 Warming oceans result in, 1) "more extreme weather events and the loss of coastal protection," 2) "coral bleaching and the loss of breeding grounds for marine fishes and mammals," and 3) "threaten food security [and] increase the prevalence of diseases."7

Sea Level Rise

"Over the period 1901 to 2010, global mean sea level rose by 0.19 [0.17 to 0.21] m [4.33 inches]. The rate of sea level rise since the mid-19th century has been larger than the mean rate during the previous two millennia."8

Sea Level Rise 1-4 Feet by 2100

"[Sea level rise] is the result of added water from melting land ice and the expansion of seawater as it warms."9 NASA's Lansat satellites reveal that glaciers around the world have lost well over nine trillion tons of ice since 1961.10 In the next several decades, storm surges and high tides could combine with sea level rise and land subsidence to further increase flooding in many regions. Sea level rise will continue past 2100 because the oceans take a very long time to respond to warmer conditions at the Earth’s surface. Ocean waters will therefore continue to warm and sea level will continue to rise for many centuries at rates equal to or higher than those of the current century."11

Changing Precipitation Patterns

"Averaged over the mid-latitude land areas of the Northern Hemisphere, precipitation has increased since 1901."12

Increasing Heavy Precidipation Events

"There are likely more land regions where the number of heavy precipitation events has increased than where it has decreased. Recent detection of increasing trends in extreme precipitation and discharge in some catchments implies greater risks of flooding at regional scale. It is likely that extreme sea levels (for example, as experienced in storm surges) have increased since 1970, being mainly a result of rising mean sea level."13

Increasing Extreme Events

"Changes in many extreme weather and climate events have been observed since about 1950. Some of these changes have been linked to human influences, including a decrease in cold temperature extremes, an increase in warm temperature extremes, an increase in extreme high sea levels and an increase in the number of heavy precipitation events in a number of regions."14

Changes in Hurricane Behavior

"The intensity, frequency and duration of North Atlantic hurricanes, as well as the frequency of the strongest (Category 4 and 5) hurricanes, have all increased since the early 1980s. The relative contributions of human and natural causes to these increases are still uncertain. Hurricane-associated storm intensity and rainfall rates are projected to increase as the climate continues to warm."15

Increasing Drought and Heat Wave Severity

"In the United States, "summer temperatures are projected to continue rising, and a reduction of soil moisture, which exacerbates heat waves, is projected for much of the western and central U.S. in summer. By the end of this century, what have been once-in-20-year extreme heat days (one-day events) are projected to occur every two or three years over most of the nation."16

Days and Nights are Getting Warmer

"It is very likely that the number of cold days and nights has decreased and the number of warm days and nights has increased on the global scale. It is likely that the frequency of heat waves has increased in large parts of Europe, Asia and Australia. It is very likely that human influence has contributed to the observed global scale changes in the frequency and intensity of daily temperature extremes since the mid-20th century. It is likely that human influence has more than doubled the probability of occurrence of heat waves in some locations."17

Arctic Likely to Become Ice-Free

"The annual mean Arctic sea-ice extent decreased over the period 1979 to 2012, with a rate that was very likely in the range 3.5 to 4.1% per decade. Arctic sea-ice extent has decreased in every season and in every successive decade since 1979, with the most rapid decrease in decadal mean extent in summer."18

Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets

"Over the period 1992 to 2011, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have been losing mass, likely at a larger rate over 2002 to 2011. Glaciers have continued to shrink almost worldwide. Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover has continued to decrease in extent. There is high confidence that permafrost temperatures have increased in most regions since the early 1980s in response to increased surface temperature and changing snow cover."19


References:

1 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 2 pp.

2 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 6 pp.

3 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 15 pp.

4 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 16 pp.

5 NASA 2019. The Effects of Climate Change. https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/. Accessed on 23 October 2019.

6 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 4 pp.

7 IUCN 2019. Ocean warming. https://www.iucn.org/resources/issues-briefs/ocean-warming. Accessed on 24 October 2019.

8 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 4 pp.

9 NASA 2019. The Effects of Climate Change. https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/. Accessed on 23 October 2019.

10 NASA 2019. Glaciers Lose 9 Trillion Tons of Ice in Half a Century. https://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/glaciers-lose-9-trillion-tons-of-ice-in-half-a-century/. Accessed on 24 October 2019.

11 NASA 2019. The Effects of Climate Change. https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/. Accessed on 23 October 2019.

12 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 4 pp.

13 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 8 pp.

14 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 53 pp.

15 NASA 2019. The Effects of Climate Change. https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/. Accessed on 23 October 2019.

16 NASA 2019. The Effects of Climate Change. https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/. Accessed on 23 October 2019.

17 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 7-8 pp.

18 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 4 pp.

19 IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 4 pp.

Image Credits:

Image 1 (Flooding). Texas National Guard

Image 2 (Coral Bleaching). Vardhan Patankar CC BY-SA 4.0, Resized.

Image 3 (Sea Level Rise). NPS Climate Change Response Team

Image 4 (Flooding & Ag). Jocelyn Augustino, FEMA, Public Domain

Image 5 (Flooding). U.S. Department of Defense

Image 6 (Wildfire). Mike Lewelling, National Park Service

Image 7 (Arctic Ice Melt). Royal Opera House Covent Garden CC BY-SA 2.5, Resized.

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Greenland Ice Sheet

IMPACT

GREENLAND ICE SHEET

"The mass of ice in the Greenland Ice Sheet has begun to decline. From 1979 to 2006, summer melt on the ice sheet increased by 30 percent, reaching a new record in 2007. At higher elevations, an increase in winter snow accumulation has partially offset the melt. However, the decline continues to outpace accumulation because warmer temperatures have led to increased melt and faster glacier movement at the island's edges." 9

2016 MELT SEASON

"Melt extent in Greenland was above average in 2016, ranking tenth highest (tied with 2004) in the 38-year satellite record. Melt area in 2016 was slightly greater than in 2015, which ranked twelfth. However, near-average to below-average coastal snowfall levels that exposed bare ice earlier in the melting season, combined with warm and sunny conditions at lower elevations, led to high overall ice loss from runoff." 10

REFERENCES

1 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

2 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

3 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

4 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

5 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

6 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

7 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

8 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

9 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

10 National Snow and Ice Data Center (2017). Quick facts on ice. Accessed February 19, 2017. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html

IMAGE CREDITS

greenland_icemelt_1.jpg: original image by NASA ICE is licensed under CC BY 2.0

greenland_icemelt_2.jpg: original image by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Jefferson Beck and is released into the public domain

greenland_icemelt_3.jpg: original image by NASA ICE is licensed under CC BY 2.0

greenland_icemelt_4.jpg: original image by NASA/Michael Studinger is released into the public domain

greenland_icemelt_5.jpg: original image by Halorache is licensed under ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

chart.jpeg: original image by National Snow and Ice Data Center (Ted Scambos, Julienne Stroeve, and Lora Koenig) is released into the public domain

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Greenland Jacobshavn Glacier

IMPACT

GREENLAND JAKOBSHAVN GLACIER

"In November 2007, New Zealand’s National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) announced that ice volume in the country’s Southern Alps had shrunk nearly 11 percent over the previous 30 years. NIWA scientists attributed the glacial retreat primarily to global warming and stated that, in the absence of substantial climate cooling, 12 of the largest glaciers would not recover to their previous sizes."4

Tasman Glacier

The Tasman Glacier has retreated 3 miles (5 kilometers) in the past three decades. As the glacier has retreated, the lake at the glacier's snout has grown considerably. The lake increases the likelyhood that chunks of ice will break off the glacier.5

GLACIAL RECESSION

The following satellite images of the Tasman Glacier clearly show glacial recession, and a substantial increase in the size of Tasman Lake at the glacier's snout.

REFERENCES

1 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2011). Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/tasman-glacier-new-zealand.html

2 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2011). Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/tasman-glacier-new-zealand.html

3 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

5 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

IMAGE CREDITS

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_1.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_2.jpg: original image by Ewan MacPhillimy is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_3.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_4.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_5.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_30Dec1990.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 4 was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_06Dec2007.jpg: original image acquired via ASTER was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_29Dec2016.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 8 was downloaded from the USGS Earth Explorer and is released into the public domain

x

Greenland Helheim Glacier

IMPACT

GREENLAND HELHEIM GLACIER

"In November 2007, New Zealand’s National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) announced that ice volume in the country’s Southern Alps had shrunk nearly 11 percent over the previous 30 years. NIWA scientists attributed the glacial retreat primarily to global warming and stated that, in the absence of substantial climate cooling, 12 of the largest glaciers would not recover to their previous sizes."4

Tasman Glacier

The Tasman Glacier has retreated 3 miles (5 kilometers) in the past three decades. As the glacier has retreated, the lake at the glacier's snout has grown considerably. The lake increases the likelyhood that chunks of ice will break off the glacier.5

GLACIAL RECESSION

The following satellite images of the Tasman Glacier clearly show glacial recession, and a substantial increase in the size of Tasman Lake at the glacier's snout.

REFERENCES

1 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2011). Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/tasman-glacier-new-zealand.html

2 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2011). Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/tasman-glacier-new-zealand.html

3 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

5 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

IMAGE CREDITS

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_1.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_2.jpg: original image by Ewan MacPhillimy is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_3.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_4.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_5.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_30Dec1990.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 4 was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_06Dec2007.jpg: original image acquired via ASTER was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_29Dec2016.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 8 was downloaded from the USGS Earth Explorer and is released into the public domain

x

Greenland Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier

IMPACT

GREENLAND KANGERDLUGSSUAQ GLACIER

"In November 2007, New Zealand’s National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) announced that ice volume in the country’s Southern Alps had shrunk nearly 11 percent over the previous 30 years. NIWA scientists attributed the glacial retreat primarily to global warming and stated that, in the absence of substantial climate cooling, 12 of the largest glaciers would not recover to their previous sizes."4

Tasman Glacier

The Tasman Glacier has retreated 3 miles (5 kilometers) in the past three decades. As the glacier has retreated, the lake at the glacier's snout has grown considerably. The lake increases the likelyhood that chunks of ice will break off the glacier.5

GLACIAL RECESSION

The following satellite images of the Tasman Glacier clearly show glacial recession, and a substantial increase in the size of Tasman Lake at the glacier's snout.

REFERENCES

1 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2011). Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/tasman-glacier-new-zealand.html

2 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2011). Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/tasman-glacier-new-zealand.html

3 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

5 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

IMAGE CREDITS

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_1.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_2.jpg: original image by Ewan MacPhillimy is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_3.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_4.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_5.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_30Dec1990.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 4 was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_06Dec2007.jpg: original image acquired via ASTER was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_29Dec2016.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 8 was downloaded from the USGS Earth Explorer and is released into the public domain

x

Kolkata


KOLKATA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Maldives


MALDIVES

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Bolinao


BOLINAO

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Osaka


OSAKA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Sea of Okhotsk


SEA OF OKHOTSK

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Ürumqi


ÜRUMQI

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Lake Baikal


LAKE BAIKAL

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Western Siberia


WESTERN SIBERIA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Lake Ladoga


LAKE LADOGA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Heligoland


HELIGOLAND

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

De Bilt


DE BILT

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Al Wahda Reservoir, Morocco

THREAT

CLIMATE

CHANGE

QUICK FACTS

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OVERVIEW

Climate change threatens water security

"Al Wahda [Reservoir] is an important source of water, irrigation, and hydropower for Morocco's over [34 million] people.1,2 Like other North African countries, Morocco already faces water scarcity, and climate change is expected to aggravate water stress in the region."4,9

Increasing Drought Severity

"During the 20th century, Morocco experienced several droughts of different durations and intensities with more than 10 major dry periods which extended over the entire country."11

"Natural resources are under pressure from population growth, improving living conditions, and economic growth. The demand for water includes potable water (6 percent), industrial use (4 percent), and agriculture (90 percent)."11

"The most recent drought episode in Morocco was in 2015-16, with rainfall for the period September 2015 to April 2016 15 %-40 % below average at most locations; consequently the total wheat harvest was 65% below that of the previous growing season."11

"Between 1978 and 1994 average annual rainfall (between October and April) decreased by 30 percent compared to the period 1917 to 1961. Over the last 45 years, the trend in rainfall shows significant decrease in quantity and in total annual number of rainy days, especially during the February-March-April period that is critical for cereal production."11

DETAILS

"More than [34] million people live in the North African country of Morocco, which extends from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea to the Sahara Desert.2 North Africa is an arid to semi-arid region, where the climate plays a major role in people's lives and livelihoods.3 Morocco's economy is highly dependent on water, agriculture, tourism, and coastlines."3

"Al Wahda Dam, the second-largest in Africa, was built in 1996 to curb flooding along the Ouergha River, expand the capacity for irrigation, and provide hydropower."1 Since the dam's completion, flooding has dropped by about 90 percent, more water is available for irrigation, and annual electricity generation has replaced the burning of over 154,000 tons (140,000 metric tonnes) of fossil fuels.1

"However, the combination of silt buildup and climate change threatens the long-term sustainability of Al Wahda Dam.1 The reservoir loses significant capacity to sedimentation each year, and erosion of the coastal estuary intensifies as silt held behind the dam no longer replenishes land near the shore."1

"Both floods and droughts are occurring more often in North Africa as Earth's climate changes. The region warmed by an average of 1.8° F (1° ;C) during the twentieth century, with a marked increase over the last 30 years."3

"In 2002, Morocco suffered some of the worst flooding in its history. Dozens of people and hundreds of livestock died, agricultural land was damaged, and a fire in the country's most important refinery caused more than U.S. $300 million in losses.3 Yet the frequency of droughts increased from once a decade to every other year, on average, during the last century."3

"Overall, one-third of the people in Africa live in drought-prone areas and are vulnerable to the impact of droughts,4,5 and one-quarter of Africans experience high water stress.4,6 Water scarcity is a particular problem in North Africa, compounded by population growth rates that are among the world's highest.4 Each year, Morocco exploits a majority of its long-term freshwater storage capacity.7 Annual replenishment does not match demand for water, and underground water is particularly overexploited."7

WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS

"Climate change could have especially harmful consequences for African countries, worsening challenges such as high poverty rates and limited resources available for adaptation and mitigation."4

Scientists expect temperatures in North Africa to rise an average of 1.8° F (1° C) by 2020, and 3.6-7.2° F (2-4° C) by the end of this century,3 with the rate of warming after mid-century dependent on the choices we make today."

"Some 75-250 million people in Africa are projected to be at risk for greater water stress within a decade-and 350-600 million Africans by mid-century-if the world does not take further steps to reduce heat-trapping emissions and individual countries do not conserve and manage water their supplies better.8 These increases in water stress are expected to be concentrated in northern and southern Africa."9

"While Morocco is expected to maintain a balance between its water needs and its water supply until 2030,7 climate change is likely to impose added stress on the Ouergha watershed. Scientists project that a 1.8° F (1° C) increase in average air temperature by 2020 could reduce runoff to the Al Wahda Dam by around 10 percent."1,3

"For similar watersheds in northern Morocco, a roughly 10 percent annual decrease in current average runoff represents the loss of one large dam per year.3 Those losses could have a dramatic impact on the supply of water for drinking, agriculture, industry, and hydropower. Scientists also project that the growing season in parts of northern Morocco near Al Wahda Dam could shorten by more than 20 percent in the coming decades."10

SOLUTIONS TO GLOBAL WARMING IN AFRICA

"Solutions to global warming in Africa include effective land use planning to avoid forest degradation, developing renewable energy, and limiting the expansion of coal-fired power plants."22

"Although the countries of Africa have some of the lowest overall and per capita global warming emissions on the planet, they are also likely to suffer from some of the worst consequences of climate change. These impacts may already be unfolding in the form of droughts, famine, desertification, and population displacement. In the context of high levels of poverty and malnutrition, the priority for many African countries is increasing access to energy services and improving the economic welfare of their people."22

"By pioneering new renewable energy projects and establishing forward-thinking innovation centers, many countries in Africa are looking to renewable energy as a solution to meet their growing energy needs in a sustainable way, while working toward practical adaptation strategies to mitigate global warming impacts. Meeting these adaptation challenges is the responsibility not only of the African nations that are facing them, but also of developed countries that bear the historical responsibility for most global warming emissions. While progress is being made, much more needs to be done to address current and future development and energy needs on the African continent."22

References:

Except where noted, all textual content is obtained from the Union of Concerned Scientists website at https://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/yirga-chefe-ethiopia.html, accessed on 19 November 2019. Original sources are provided below.

2 Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. The world factbook. Washington, DC. Online at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mo.html. Accessed May 7, 2010.

3 Agoumi, A. 2003. Vulnerability of North African countries to climatic changes: Adaptation and implementation strategies for climatic change. Winnipeg, Manitoba: International Institute for Sustainable Development/Climate Change Knowledge Network. Online at http://www.cckn.net//pdf/north_africa.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.

4 Boko, M., I. Niang, A. Nyong, C. Vogel, A. Githeko, M. Medany, B. Osman-Elasha, R. Tabo and P. Yanda. 2007: Africa. In: Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson. Cambridge University Press, pp. 433-467.

5 World Water Forum. 2000. The Africa water vision for 2025: Equitable and sustainable use of water for socioeconomic development. UN-Water/Africa.

6 Vörösmarty, C.J., E.M. Douglas, P.A. Green, and C. Revenga. 2005. Geospatial indicators of emerging water stress: An application to Africa. Ambio 34:230-236.

7 Gueye, L., M. Bzioul, and O. Johnson. 2005. Water and sustainable development in the countries of Northern Africa: Coping with challenges and scarcity. In: Assessing sustainable development in Africa. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, pp. 24-28.

8 Arnell, N.W. 2004: Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14:31-52.

9 Arnell, N.W. 2006a. Global impacts of abrupt climate change: An initial assessment. Working paper 99. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia.

10 Arnell, N.W. 2006a. Global impacts of abrupt climate change: An initial assessment. Working paper 99. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia.

11 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2018. Drought characteristics and management in North Africa and the Near East. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/3/CA0034EN/ca0034en.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2019.

Image Credits:

Images 1. Google Earth, CNES/Airbus, Maxar Technologies

Images 2. Wikimedia Commons, علاء فحصي, CC0 1.0, resized.

Images 3. flickr, Shad Reynolds, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0, resized.

Images 4. FAO/Jeanette Van Ackre.

Images 5. flickr, Richard Allaway, CC BY 2.0, Resized.

x

Salonga National Park, DRC

THREAT

CLIMATE

CHANGE

QUICK FACTS

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OVERVIEW

Climate change threatens water security

"Al Wahda [Reservoir] is an important source of water, irrigation, and hydropower for Morocco's over [34 million] people.1,2 Like other North African countries, Morocco already faces water scarcity, and climate change is expected to aggravate water stress in the region."4,9

Increasing Drought Severity

"During the 20th century, Morocco experienced several droughts of different durations and intensities with more than 10 major dry periods which extended over the entire country."11

"Natural resources are under pressure from population growth, improving living conditions, and economic growth. The demand for water includes potable water (6 percent), industrial use (4 percent), and agriculture (90 percent)."11

"The most recent drought episode in Morocco was in 2015-16, with rainfall for the period September 2015 to April 2016 15 %-40 % below average at most locations; consequently the total wheat harvest was 65% below that of the previous growing season."11

"Between 1978 and 1994 average annual rainfall (between October and April) decreased by 30 percent compared to the period 1917 to 1961. Over the last 45 years, the trend in rainfall shows significant decrease in quantity and in total annual number of rainy days, especially during the February-March-April period that is critical for cereal production."11

DETAILS

"More than [34] million people live in the North African country of Morocco, which extends from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea to the Sahara Desert.2 North Africa is an arid to semi-arid region, where the climate plays a major role in people's lives and livelihoods.3 Morocco's economy is highly dependent on water, agriculture, tourism, and coastlines."3

"Al Wahda Dam, the second-largest in Africa, was built in 1996 to curb flooding along the Ouergha River, expand the capacity for irrigation, and provide hydropower."1 Since the dam's completion, flooding has dropped by about 90 percent, more water is available for irrigation, and annual electricity generation has replaced the burning of over 154,000 tons (140,000 metric tonnes) of fossil fuels.1

"However, the combination of silt buildup and climate change threatens the long-term sustainability of Al Wahda Dam.1 The reservoir loses significant capacity to sedimentation each year, and erosion of the coastal estuary intensifies as silt held behind the dam no longer replenishes land near the shore."1

"Both floods and droughts are occurring more often in North Africa as Earth's climate changes. The region warmed by an average of 1.8° F (1° ;C) during the twentieth century, with a marked increase over the last 30 years."3

"In 2002, Morocco suffered some of the worst flooding in its history. Dozens of people and hundreds of livestock died, agricultural land was damaged, and a fire in the country's most important refinery caused more than U.S. $300 million in losses.3 Yet the frequency of droughts increased from once a decade to every other year, on average, during the last century."3

"Overall, one-third of the people in Africa live in drought-prone areas and are vulnerable to the impact of droughts,4,5 and one-quarter of Africans experience high water stress.4,6 Water scarcity is a particular problem in North Africa, compounded by population growth rates that are among the world's highest.4 Each year, Morocco exploits a majority of its long-term freshwater storage capacity.7 Annual replenishment does not match demand for water, and underground water is particularly overexploited."7

WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS

"Climate change could have especially harmful consequences for African countries, worsening challenges such as high poverty rates and limited resources available for adaptation and mitigation."4

Scientists expect temperatures in North Africa to rise an average of 1.8° F (1° C) by 2020, and 3.6-7.2° F (2-4° C) by the end of this century,3 with the rate of warming after mid-century dependent on the choices we make today."

"Some 75-250 million people in Africa are projected to be at risk for greater water stress within a decade-and 350-600 million Africans by mid-century-if the world does not take further steps to reduce heat-trapping emissions and individual countries do not conserve and manage water their supplies better.8 These increases in water stress are expected to be concentrated in northern and southern Africa."9

"While Morocco is expected to maintain a balance between its water needs and its water supply until 2030,7 climate change is likely to impose added stress on the Ouergha watershed. Scientists project that a 1.8° F (1° C) increase in average air temperature by 2020 could reduce runoff to the Al Wahda Dam by around 10 percent."1,3

"For similar watersheds in northern Morocco, a roughly 10 percent annual decrease in current average runoff represents the loss of one large dam per year.3 Those losses could have a dramatic impact on the supply of water for drinking, agriculture, industry, and hydropower. Scientists also project that the growing season in parts of northern Morocco near Al Wahda Dam could shorten by more than 20 percent in the coming decades."10

SOLUTIONS TO GLOBAL WARMING IN AFRICA

"Solutions to global warming in Africa include effective land use planning to avoid forest degradation, developing renewable energy, and limiting the expansion of coal-fired power plants."22

"Although the countries of Africa have some of the lowest overall and per capita global warming emissions on the planet, they are also likely to suffer from some of the worst consequences of climate change. These impacts may already be unfolding in the form of droughts, famine, desertification, and population displacement. In the context of high levels of poverty and malnutrition, the priority for many African countries is increasing access to energy services and improving the economic welfare of their people."22

"By pioneering new renewable energy projects and establishing forward-thinking innovation centers, many countries in Africa are looking to renewable energy as a solution to meet their growing energy needs in a sustainable way, while working toward practical adaptation strategies to mitigate global warming impacts. Meeting these adaptation challenges is the responsibility not only of the African nations that are facing them, but also of developed countries that bear the historical responsibility for most global warming emissions. While progress is being made, much more needs to be done to address current and future development and energy needs on the African continent."22

References:

Except where noted, all textual content is obtained from the Union of Concerned Scientists website at https://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/yirga-chefe-ethiopia.html, accessed on 19 November 2019. Original sources are provided below.

2 Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. The world factbook. Washington, DC. Online at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mo.html. Accessed May 7, 2010.

3 Agoumi, A. 2003. Vulnerability of North African countries to climatic changes: Adaptation and implementation strategies for climatic change. Winnipeg, Manitoba: International Institute for Sustainable Development/Climate Change Knowledge Network. Online at http://www.cckn.net//pdf/north_africa.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.

4 Boko, M., I. Niang, A. Nyong, C. Vogel, A. Githeko, M. Medany, B. Osman-Elasha, R. Tabo and P. Yanda. 2007: Africa. In: Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson. Cambridge University Press, pp. 433-467.

5 World Water Forum. 2000. The Africa water vision for 2025: Equitable and sustainable use of water for socioeconomic development. UN-Water/Africa.

6 Vörösmarty, C.J., E.M. Douglas, P.A. Green, and C. Revenga. 2005. Geospatial indicators of emerging water stress: An application to Africa. Ambio 34:230-236.

7 Gueye, L., M. Bzioul, and O. Johnson. 2005. Water and sustainable development in the countries of Northern Africa: Coping with challenges and scarcity. In: Assessing sustainable development in Africa. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, pp. 24-28.

8 Arnell, N.W. 2004: Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14:31-52.

9 Arnell, N.W. 2006a. Global impacts of abrupt climate change: An initial assessment. Working paper 99. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia.

10 Arnell, N.W. 2006a. Global impacts of abrupt climate change: An initial assessment. Working paper 99. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia.

11 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2018. Drought characteristics and management in North Africa and the Near East. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/3/CA0034EN/ca0034en.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2019.

Image Credits:

Images 1. Google Earth, CNES/Airbus, Maxar Technologies

Images 2. Wikimedia Commons, علاء فحصي, CC0 1.0, resized.

Images 3. flickr, Shad Reynolds, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0, resized.

Images 4. FAO/Jeanette Van Ackre.

Images 5. flickr, Richard Allaway, CC BY 2.0, Resized.

x

Etosha National Park, Namibia

THREAT

CLIMATE

CHANGE

QUICK FACTS

[Toggle Buttons]

OVERVIEW

Climate change threatens water security

"Al Wahda [Reservoir] is an important source of water, irrigation, and hydropower for Morocco's over [34 million] people.1,2 Like other North African countries, Morocco already faces water scarcity, and climate change is expected to aggravate water stress in the region."4,9

Increasing Drought Severity

"During the 20th century, Morocco experienced several droughts of different durations and intensities with more than 10 major dry periods which extended over the entire country."11

"Natural resources are under pressure from population growth, improving living conditions, and economic growth. The demand for water includes potable water (6 percent), industrial use (4 percent), and agriculture (90 percent)."11

"The most recent drought episode in Morocco was in 2015-16, with rainfall for the period September 2015 to April 2016 15 %-40 % below average at most locations; consequently the total wheat harvest was 65% below that of the previous growing season."11

"Between 1978 and 1994 average annual rainfall (between October and April) decreased by 30 percent compared to the period 1917 to 1961. Over the last 45 years, the trend in rainfall shows significant decrease in quantity and in total annual number of rainy days, especially during the February-March-April period that is critical for cereal production."11

DETAILS

"More than [34] million people live in the North African country of Morocco, which extends from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea to the Sahara Desert.2 North Africa is an arid to semi-arid region, where the climate plays a major role in people's lives and livelihoods.3 Morocco's economy is highly dependent on water, agriculture, tourism, and coastlines."3

"Al Wahda Dam, the second-largest in Africa, was built in 1996 to curb flooding along the Ouergha River, expand the capacity for irrigation, and provide hydropower."1 Since the dam's completion, flooding has dropped by about 90 percent, more water is available for irrigation, and annual electricity generation has replaced the burning of over 154,000 tons (140,000 metric tonnes) of fossil fuels.1

"However, the combination of silt buildup and climate change threatens the long-term sustainability of Al Wahda Dam.1 The reservoir loses significant capacity to sedimentation each year, and erosion of the coastal estuary intensifies as silt held behind the dam no longer replenishes land near the shore."1

"Both floods and droughts are occurring more often in North Africa as Earth's climate changes. The region warmed by an average of 1.8° F (1° ;C) during the twentieth century, with a marked increase over the last 30 years."3

"In 2002, Morocco suffered some of the worst flooding in its history. Dozens of people and hundreds of livestock died, agricultural land was damaged, and a fire in the country's most important refinery caused more than U.S. $300 million in losses.3 Yet the frequency of droughts increased from once a decade to every other year, on average, during the last century."3

"Overall, one-third of the people in Africa live in drought-prone areas and are vulnerable to the impact of droughts,4,5 and one-quarter of Africans experience high water stress.4,6 Water scarcity is a particular problem in North Africa, compounded by population growth rates that are among the world's highest.4 Each year, Morocco exploits a majority of its long-term freshwater storage capacity.7 Annual replenishment does not match demand for water, and underground water is particularly overexploited."7

WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS

"Climate change could have especially harmful consequences for African countries, worsening challenges such as high poverty rates and limited resources available for adaptation and mitigation."4

Scientists expect temperatures in North Africa to rise an average of 1.8° F (1° C) by 2020, and 3.6-7.2° F (2-4° C) by the end of this century,3 with the rate of warming after mid-century dependent on the choices we make today."

"Some 75-250 million people in Africa are projected to be at risk for greater water stress within a decade-and 350-600 million Africans by mid-century-if the world does not take further steps to reduce heat-trapping emissions and individual countries do not conserve and manage water their supplies better.8 These increases in water stress are expected to be concentrated in northern and southern Africa."9

"While Morocco is expected to maintain a balance between its water needs and its water supply until 2030,7 climate change is likely to impose added stress on the Ouergha watershed. Scientists project that a 1.8° F (1° C) increase in average air temperature by 2020 could reduce runoff to the Al Wahda Dam by around 10 percent."1,3

"For similar watersheds in northern Morocco, a roughly 10 percent annual decrease in current average runoff represents the loss of one large dam per year.3 Those losses could have a dramatic impact on the supply of water for drinking, agriculture, industry, and hydropower. Scientists also project that the growing season in parts of northern Morocco near Al Wahda Dam could shorten by more than 20 percent in the coming decades."10

SOLUTIONS TO GLOBAL WARMING IN AFRICA

"Solutions to global warming in Africa include effective land use planning to avoid forest degradation, developing renewable energy, and limiting the expansion of coal-fired power plants."22

"Although the countries of Africa have some of the lowest overall and per capita global warming emissions on the planet, they are also likely to suffer from some of the worst consequences of climate change. These impacts may already be unfolding in the form of droughts, famine, desertification, and population displacement. In the context of high levels of poverty and malnutrition, the priority for many African countries is increasing access to energy services and improving the economic welfare of their people."22

"By pioneering new renewable energy projects and establishing forward-thinking innovation centers, many countries in Africa are looking to renewable energy as a solution to meet their growing energy needs in a sustainable way, while working toward practical adaptation strategies to mitigate global warming impacts. Meeting these adaptation challenges is the responsibility not only of the African nations that are facing them, but also of developed countries that bear the historical responsibility for most global warming emissions. While progress is being made, much more needs to be done to address current and future development and energy needs on the African continent."22

References:

Except where noted, all textual content is obtained from the Union of Concerned Scientists website at https://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/yirga-chefe-ethiopia.html, accessed on 19 November 2019. Original sources are provided below.

2 Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. The world factbook. Washington, DC. Online at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mo.html. Accessed May 7, 2010.

3 Agoumi, A. 2003. Vulnerability of North African countries to climatic changes: Adaptation and implementation strategies for climatic change. Winnipeg, Manitoba: International Institute for Sustainable Development/Climate Change Knowledge Network. Online at http://www.cckn.net//pdf/north_africa.pdf. Accessed May 7, 2010.

4 Boko, M., I. Niang, A. Nyong, C. Vogel, A. Githeko, M. Medany, B. Osman-Elasha, R. Tabo and P. Yanda. 2007: Africa. In: Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson. Cambridge University Press, pp. 433-467.

5 World Water Forum. 2000. The Africa water vision for 2025: Equitable and sustainable use of water for socioeconomic development. UN-Water/Africa.

6 Vörösmarty, C.J., E.M. Douglas, P.A. Green, and C. Revenga. 2005. Geospatial indicators of emerging water stress: An application to Africa. Ambio 34:230-236.

7 Gueye, L., M. Bzioul, and O. Johnson. 2005. Water and sustainable development in the countries of Northern Africa: Coping with challenges and scarcity. In: Assessing sustainable development in Africa. Addis Ababa: Economic Commission for Africa, pp. 24-28.

8 Arnell, N.W. 2004: Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14:31-52.

9 Arnell, N.W. 2006a. Global impacts of abrupt climate change: An initial assessment. Working paper 99. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia.

10 Arnell, N.W. 2006a. Global impacts of abrupt climate change: An initial assessment. Working paper 99. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia.

11 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2018. Drought characteristics and management in North Africa and the Near East. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/3/CA0034EN/ca0034en.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2019.

Image Credits:

Images 1. Google Earth, CNES/Airbus, Maxar Technologies

Images 2. Wikimedia Commons, علاء فحصي, CC0 1.0, resized.

Images 3. flickr, Shad Reynolds, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0, resized.

Images 4. FAO/Jeanette Van Ackre.

Images 5. flickr, Richard Allaway, CC BY 2.0, Resized.

x

Cape Floral Region


CAPE FLORAL REGION

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Mount Kilimanjaro


MOUNT KILIMANJARO

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Mount Kenya


MOUNT KENYA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Republic of Kiribati


REPUBLIC OF KIRIBATI

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Great Barrier Reef


GREAT BARRIER REEF

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Sydney


SYDNEY

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Kinglake


KINGLAKE

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Tasman Glacier, New Zealand

IMPACT

NEW ZEALAND'S GLACIERS

"In November 2007, New Zealand’s National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) announced that ice volume in the country’s Southern Alps had shrunk nearly 11 percent over the previous 30 years. NIWA scientists attributed the glacial retreat primarily to global warming and stated that, in the absence of substantial climate cooling, 12 of the largest glaciers would not recover to their previous sizes."4

Tasman Glacier

The Tasman Glacier has retreated 3 miles (5 kilometers) in the past three decades. As the glacier has retreated, the lake at the glacier's snout has grown considerably. The lake increases the likelyhood that chunks of ice will break off the glacier.5

GLACIAL RECESSION

The following satellite images of the Tasman Glacier clearly show glacial recession, and a substantial increase in the size of Tasman Lake at the glacier's snout.

REFERENCES

1 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2011). Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/tasman-glacier-new-zealand.html

2 Union of Concerned Scientists. (2011). Tasman Glacier, New Zealand. Accessed February 10, 2017. http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-locations/tasman-glacier-new-zealand.html

3 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

5 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 27, 2008). Retreat of the Tasman Glacier. Accessed February 8, 2017. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8434

IMAGE CREDITS

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_1.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_2.jpg: original image by Ewan MacPhillimy is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_3.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_4.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_5.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_30Dec1990.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 4 was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_06Dec2007.jpg: original image acquired via ASTER was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_29Dec2016.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 8 was downloaded from the USGS Earth Explorer and is released into the public domain

x

Larsen B Ice Shelf


LARSEN B ICE SHELF

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

South Orkney Islands


SOUTH ORKNEY ISLANDS

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Chacaltaya Glacier, Bolivia

IMPACT

BOLIVIA'S GLACIERS

Annual meltwater from the Andean glaciers provides a critical water supply for nearly 80 million people during the dry season.1"The World Bank warned earlier this year that many of the Andes' tropical glaciers will disappear within 20 years."2The retreat and disappearance of glaciers jeopardizes water supplies for drinking and agriculture, and may diminish hydroelectric production from dams. "Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru depend on hydropower for about half their electricity."3

Chacaltaya Glacier

The 18,000-year-old Chacaltaya Glacier is a typical example of a disappearing small glacier.4 In 1940, it covered an area of 0.22 km2.5 By 2005, the glacier had melted considerably, covering just 0.01 km2.6 Scientists had orignally predicted that the glacier would survive until 2015, but glacial melting exceeded expectations, and by 2009, the glacier had almost completely disappeared.7

GLACIAL RECESSION

The following satellite images of the Tasman Glacier clearly show glacial recession, and a substantial increase in the size of Tasman Lake at the glacier's snout.

REFERENCES

1 BBC. (2009). Huge Bolivian glacier disappears. Accessed April 11, 2017. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8046540.stm

2 BBC. (2009). Huge Bolivian glacier disappears. Accessed April 11, 2017. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8046540.stm

3 BBC. (2009). Huge Bolivian glacier disappears. Accessed April 11, 2017. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8046540.stm

4 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Retreat of Chacaltaya and its effects: case study of a small disappearing glacier in Bolivia. Accessed April 11, 2017. https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch1s1-3-1.html

5 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Retreat of Chacaltaya and its effects: case study of a small disappearing glacier in Bolivia. Accessed April 11, 2017. https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch1s1-3-1.html

6 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Retreat of Chacaltaya and its effects: case study of a small disappearing glacier in Bolivia. Accessed April 11, 2017. https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch1s1-3-1.html

7 BBC. (2016). Bolivia's abandoned ski resort: A sign of droughts to come? Accessed April 11, 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-38235094

IMAGE CREDITS

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_1.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_2.jpg: original image by Ewan MacPhillimy is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_3.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_4.jpg: original image by Pseudopanax is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_5.jpg: original image by Avenue is licensed under ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_30Dec1990.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 4 was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_06Dec2007.jpg: original image acquired via ASTER was downloaded from the NASA Earth Observatory and is released into the public domain

TasmanGlacier_1024x768_29Dec2016.jpg: original image acquired via Landsat 8 was downloaded from the USGS Earth Explorer and is released into the public domain

x

Lima


LIMA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Recife


RECIFE

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

San Andres Island


SAN ANDRES ISLAND

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

US Virgin Islands


US VIRGIN ISLAND

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Antigua and Barbuda


ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Cancun


CANCUN

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Elliott Key


ELLIOTT KEY

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Mississippi Delta


MISSISSIPPI DELTA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Arctic Amplification, Chukchi Sea


Arctic Amplification, Chukchi Sea

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Nome


NOME

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Fairbanks


FAIRBANKS

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

MacKenzie River Basin


MACKENZIE RIVER BASIN

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

British Columbia


BRITISH COLUMBIA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Glacier National Park


GLACIER NATIONAL PARK

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Ross Dam


ROSS DAM

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Duffer Peak


DUFFER PEAK

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Hetch Hetchy Reservoir


HETCH HETCHY RESERVOIR

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Lake Mead


LAKE MEAD

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Yellowstone National Park


YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Rocky Mountains


ROCKY MOUNTAINS

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Mesita del Buey


MESITA DEL BUEY

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/

x

Manitoba


MANITOBA

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

Some Info

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others.3



TOTAL NUMBER 2

4,880


STATUS

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED


THREATS

POACHING & HABITAT LOSS


INSERT TITLE HERE

Throughout most of the 20th century, the Black Rhino was the most numerous of the world's rhino species which at one stage could have numbered around 850,000. Relentless hunting of the species and clearances of land for settlement and agriculture reduced numbers and by 1960 only an estimated 100,000 remained. Between 1960 and 1995, large-scale poaching caused a dramatic 98% collapse in numbers.

Continentally numbers bottomed out at only 2,410 in 1995 (Emslie and Brooks 1999). From 1992–1995 total numbers remained relatively stable with increases in some countries (those with the best-protected and managed populations) being cancelled out by declines in others. However, since the low of 1995, Black Rhino numbers at a continental level have increased every time continental population estimates have been revised by the AfRSG reaching 4,880 by December 2010 (Emslie 2006; Emslie et al. 2007; AfRSG data 2008, 2011).3

INSERT TITLE HERE

The Black Rhino faces a variety of threats. The main threat is poaching for the international rhino horn trade. Rhino horn has two main uses: traditional (and more recently new non-traditional) use in Chinese medicine, and ornamental use (for example, rhino horn is a highly prized material for making ornately carved handles for ceremonial daggers or Jambiyas worn in some Middle East countries). In recent years there has been an upsurge in black market prices for rhino horn which has coincided with an increase in poaching in some range states. This increase has coincided with new use of rhino horn to supposedly treat cancer (a non-traditional use) and one for which there is no supporting clinical evidence of its effectiveness.

Civil unrest, the free flow of weapons and better communication systems in Africa have had a significant impact on African rhino conservation efforts. Black Rhino populations in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda have to varying degrees all suffered from the consequences of war and civil unrest since the 1960s (Emslie and Brooks 1999). The negative effects of this have been exacerbated when combined with lack of political will and lack of conservation expenditure by some governments. Some detrimental effects include trading of rhino horn and ivory for weapons, increased poaching due to increased poverty in times of civil unrest, and diminished levels of protection for rhino populations as funds are diverted away from wildlife departments. Other threats that can cause populations to decline include habitat changes, competing species and alien plant invasions.4

1 Numbers based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

2 Total number based on 2010 data provided by the IUCN Global Species Programme

3 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

4 Emslie, R. 2012. Diceros bicornis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T6557A16980917. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T6557A16980917.en. Downloaded on 20 December 2016.

Wildlife data is provided by the IUCN Red List. To learn more visit http://www.iucnredlist.org/